A U.S. District Court decision today by Judge Janet Arteron provides a bit of clarity on some first amendment retaliation issues that may be helpful to some employers. The case, Milardo v. City of Middletown (Dec. 20, 2007), is by no means groundbreaking; the facts of the case allow the court to sidestep some issues by simply finding a lack of evidence to support some of the claims.
Nevertheless, the case addresses, for example, the common argument of retaliation claims that mere temporal proximity should be sufficient to state a claim for retaliation. (Click here for prior posts on the issue of temporal proximity for retaliation.) The court here finds that the passage of nearly a year between an alleged complaint and the ultimate termination is insufficient to support a claim of retaliation.
One other interesting aspect is whether the filing of a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request is sufficient to form the basis of a First Amendment claim. The court says that the answer generally is no and that Plaintiff did not show that his case falls within the very narrow exception to that general rule.
As a general matter, courts have held that there is no First Amendment right to access government information, even by way of the FOIA. See, e.g., Houchins v. KQED, Inc., 438 U.S. 1, 8–9 (1978) (plurality opinion) (“Neither the First Amendment nor theFourteenth Amendment mandates a right of access to government information or sources of information within the government’s control.”); id. at 16 (Stewart, J., concurring) (“The First and Fourteenth Amendments do not guarantee the public a right of access to information generated or controlled by government.”); McGehee v. Casey, 718 F.2d 1137, 1147 (D.C. Cir. 1983) (“As a general rule, citizens have no first amendment right of access to traditionally nonpublic government information. A litigant seeking release of government information under FOIA, therefore, relies upon a statutory entitlement — as narrowed by statutory exceptions — and not upon his constitutional right to free expression.”)
To the extent there is a limited constitutional right of access to some types of information held by the government, e.g., Press-Enterprise Co. v. Superior Court, 478 U.S. 1, 8 (1986)
(recognizing a First Amendment right to access certain aspects of criminal proceedings), Plaintiff has failed to show how what he requested through the FOIA falls within that exception. See Center for Nat’l Sec. Studies v. U.S. Dep’t of Justice, 331 F.3d 918, 934–36 (D.C. Cir. 2003) (summarizing the limited ways in which the Constitution guarantees access to criminal trials).
Milardo argues in his brief only that, although “the mere filing of a FOIA request is not necessarily ipso facto the exercise of a protected First Amendment right, the nature of the request in this case does merit First Amendment protection.” (Pl.’s Opp’n at 6.) In his request, Plaintiff sought information which he believed would reveal evidence of improper conduct by city employees, but he has not shown how this is the type of exceptional request that merits constitutional protection.
Moreover, the undisputed evidence shows that the city produced the documents he sought and that his request played no part in the city’s ultimate decision to terminate his employment ten months later. Thus, no reasonable fact-finder could conclude that Plaintiff was subjected to an adverse employment decision in retaliation for making any constitutionally-protected request.