In closing out its 2008-09 term today the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4, along ideological lines that the city of New Haven violated Title VII in refusing to promote a group of white firefighters and refusing to apply the results of a test that it claimed would have had a disparate impact on minorities.
The decision in Ricci v. DeStefano (download here) is bound to be heavily reviewed, scrutinized and analyzed. Indeed, because Judge Sotomayor (who was involved in the original decision at the Second Circuit) has now been nominated for the Supreme Court, the decision has been highly anticipated.
But despite the hyperbole about this case beforehand, the case has pitted two competing issues against each other – the city’s alleged fear that the test, if applied, would have had a disparate impact on minorities (opening itself up to a lawsuit) and the firefighter’s right to be promoted based on doing well on the test. The Court said that the city’s fear was not sufficient to not use the test and that not using the test was a violation of Title VII.
Indeed, in its decision, the Supreme Court goes one big step further; it provides the city with a defense to a possible disparate impact lawsuit:
Our holding today clarifies how Title VII applies to resolve competing expectations under the disparate-treatment and disparate-impact provisions. If, after it certifies the test results, the City faces a disparate-impact suit, then in light of our holding today it should be clear that the City would avoid disparate-impact liability based on the strong basis in evidence that, had it not certified the results, it would have been subject to disparate-treatment liability.
I’ve previously discussed the case extensively in a variety of posts which can be found here and here.
Justice Ginsburg provides the dissent here and predicts that the case will be difficult to apply in practice and further suggests that employers may have a difficult time fiting within its parameters:
As a result of today’s decision, an employer who discards a dubious selection process can anticipate costly disparate-treatment litigation in which its chances for success—evenfor surviving a summary-judgment motion—are highly problematic. Concern about exposure to disparate-impact liability, however well grounded, is insufficient to insulatean employer from attack. Instead, the employer must make a “strong” showing that (1) its selection method was“not job related and consistent with business necessity,” or (2) that it refused to adopt “an equally valid, less-discriminatory alternative.”
I’ll refrain from any big snap judgments until I review the decision at length (93 pages and all) but suffice to say that this decision will be the new starting point for employers who worry about disparate impact claims. It’s application to private employers will no doubt be scrutinized as well, but I’m going to review the whole decision before drawing too many conclusions.
What’s interesting is that the court decided the case on Title VII grounds instead of the "Equal Protection Clause" questions that it also faced. What this means is that private employers need to pay much closer attention to this case than had it been decided on the other grounds. After all, Title VII applies just as much to private employers as it does to the government.
My firm will be presenting a free webinar on this case and its impact on employers on July 8th at noon. Details will be forthcoming in a post later today.
In the meantime, if you’re looking for other instant analysis, check out the SCOTUSBlog for their posts.