So a few weeks back, I suggested that we were entering into a new era of sexual harassment cases and wondered out loud when the statistics would back up my observations.

We now have our first signs.  Maybe.

In my exclusive continued look at the case statistics from the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities, we can see the first signs of an increase.

But as I’ll explain below, it’s difficult to know if this is a statistical anomaly.

Despite significant drops in most types of discrimination complaints, the number of sexual harassment complaints in Connecticut went up last fiscal year to 145, up from 135 the year before.

As a percentage of overall claims, sex harassment employment claims are just 3 percent of the overall claims filed, up from 2.5 percent the prior year.

But here’s the issue: When you look back at prior fiscal years in 2014 and 2015, the number of sex harassment claims is still below those years.

In other words, is it a trend up? Or overall down? Indeed, the numbers from FY 2012 are comparable to FY 2017’s numbers. Except that as a percentage, there were more sex harassment claims made 5 years ago, then now (3.6% to 3.0).

What else do we see? Well, as expected with an overall drop in cases is an drop in claims of wrongful discharge, refusal to provide reasonable accommodations, terms and conditions, and even demotions.

Remaining constant were claims for failure to promote, termination of employment due to pregnancy, and aiding & abetting discrimination.

When you review the basis for claims filed, we see drops in claims for age (FY 2017 451 vs FY 2016 518), race (551 vs 616), sex (507 vs 532) and physical disability (445 vs 520).

Some other bases hold steady or even slightly increase: ancestry claims (200 vs 188) and mental disability claims (103 vs. 110).

For employers, watch the trends. Will sex harassment claims continue to increase? And will overall claims decline?

There’s more that we can glean from these numbers too. I’ll have more in an upcoming post.

 

 

Through a recent FOI request, I was able to take a peek at the latest case statistics coming out of the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities. (The CHRO has since added them to the website as well.)

I’ve done these recaps in years before (here’s 2016 for example) and I think you can learn a lot not just on the latest statistics but when you compare them to prior years.

So, what do the numbers from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017 show?

Well, for the first time in several years, we’ve seen a noticeable decrease in the numbers of complaints filed.

In FY 16-17, 2376 total complaints were filed, down from 2616 the prior year – a 9 percent decrease.  Of course, it’s still up from FY 11-12 when just 1838 total complaints were filed.

And what about employment discrimination complaints in particular?

The report also shows a drop in the number of complaints being filed, 1936, as compared to 2160 in the prior fiscal year.  That represents over a 10 percent drop. Again, however, it’s still up from FY 2012 when just 1559 employment claims were filed.

After years of marked increases, it’s nice to confirm what we have been seeing internally — that discrimination claims seems to be on the decline.

It’s difficult to know exactly why; we had seen increases the last few years at a national EEOC level too, but these new statistics from the CHRO show that the trendline up has finally broken.

Certainly the improved economy seems one factor but it’ll be interesting to see if this trend continues.

I’ll have a deeper dive into the statistics in an upcoming post.

numbersThis week, the Yankee Institute for Public Policy, a self-described “free market” think tank, issued an article suggesting that Connecticut had nearly the same number of discrimination complaints as our neighboring state, Massachusetts.

(This isn’t the first time it’s been critical of the CHRO.)

In doing so, the Yankee Institute claimed that these statistics raise “questions as to whether Connecticut is simply more litigious or if the policies at the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities are encouraging more claims.”

The basis for its analysis is a raw look at the statistics of claims filed — something I covered way back in December 2016 in two posts here and here.

I noted back then that the statistics only told part of the story and unfortunately here, the Yankee Institute’s arguments fall into this trap of relying too heavily on just a few statistics.

For example, yes, discrimination complaints have risen in the last few years as the Yankee Institute argues, but the types of complaints being filed are changing.  The Yankee Institute’s article lumps them all together as if they are fungible.

For example, as I noted in December: If you look at the claims involving termination of employment, there were 1216 filed in FY 2016, which is actually down from historical peaks in 2003, when there were 1385 such claims.

Instead, a different type of claim is being filed over the last 15 years — with huge increases in the “terms and conditions” area.

That is, employees who claim that they are being discriminated against in the “terms and conditions” of their employment when it comes to things like hiring, promotions and pay.  It could also mean an employer is not approving leaves, or granting breaks or any other term or condition of employment, however small.

In 2003, there were 411 such claims filed.  In 2014, there were 782.  By FY 2016, however, that number has skyrocketed to 1056!

In my mind, that likely means that more current employees are bringing discrimination claims against their employers.

chro99This is bolstered by a look at the “harassment” statistics. Notably, I’m not talking about sexual harassment claims, which continue to trend noticeably downward.  Just 135 such claims were filed in FY 2016, down from 185 the prior year and the lowest number by far in the 15+ years of available data.

Instead, this is a catch all claim for “I’m harassed” because of some other reason.  Just 175 such claims were filed in 2003, though that number was up to 380 in 2014.  For FY 2016, that number is up to 545.

That’s a more than 210% increase in over a decade!

Is the CHRO to blame for this trend? Without more critical analysis, I am hesitant to place the blame on the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities.

Anecdotally, I hear more arguments that employees are throwing around the phrase “hostile work environment” — not understanding that having a difficult boss is not illegal harassment.

The Yankee Institute’s article is also critical of the CHRO’s closure rate for “No Reasonable Cause” at 54 percent, compared to 87 percent of the Massachusetts claims closed for a lack of probable cause.

The CHRO issued a statement of their own on Facebook this week, with its own explanation for the discrepancy:

Many companies in Connecticut choose to resolve those matters prior to going through the full investigation process, by mediating those claims. Mediation works to the benefit of both parties, allowing for faster resolution and less time and money spent on investigations. These cases are frequently closed in fewer than six months from filing.

Here too, I think there is a danger than just looking at the numbers.  Both sides have some merit to their arguments.

As the Yankee Institute correctly notes, complaints ARE more costly and employers sometimes feel that they should pay something on even meritless claims to avoid the cost of litigation.

But the CHRO can also point to the fact that it has been dismissing more cases of late on Early Legal Intervention, giving employers more opportunities to avoid the cost of the CHRO process.  And the CHRO has been using mediation more effectively in the past — even if cases are getting through Case Assessment Review that probably shouldn’t.

Statistics are helpful; but when a state agency or a think tank starts using the numbers without providing context, reader beware.

zombieAs I did last year, after I posted on the general statistics of the CHRO to see if we could glean any trends, I took a deeper dive into what the statistics this year show.  And there were definitely a few surprises.

Obviously, at the risk of repeating yesterday’s post, FY 2015-2016 was a very big year for employment claims.

But because less employees are being fired or laid off (unemployment in Connecticut is at moderately low levels and the newest national figures this morning show just a 4.6 percent unemployment rate) than in a recession, what gives?

Well, if you look at the “discharge” claims — that is, the claim that “I was fired because of discrimination” — there was a modest increase in those claims to 1216 in FY 2016, up from 1174 in FY 2015.  But still, discharge claims are down from their historical peaks in 2003, when there were 1385 such claims.

But the bigger increase continues to be in the “terms and conditions” area.

That is, employees who claim that they are being discriminated against in the “terms and conditions” of their employment when it comes to things like hiring, promotions and pay.

It could also mean an employer is not approving leaves, or granting breaks or any other term or condition of employment, however small.

In 2003, there were 411 such claims filed.  In 2014, there were 782.  By FY 2016, however, that number has skyrocketed to 1056!  That’s a 35 percent increase in just the last two years.

In my mind, that likely means that more current employees are bringing discrimination claims against their employers.

This is bolstered by a look at the “harassment” statistics. Notably, I’m not talking about sexual harassment claims, which continue to trend noticeably downward.  Just 135 such claims were filed in FY 2016, down from 185 the prior year and the lowest number by far in the 15+ years of available data.  

Instead, this is a catch all claim for “I’m harassed” because of some other reason.  Just 175 such claims were filed in 2003, though that number was up to 380 in 2014.  For FY 2016, that number is up to 545.

That’s a more than 210% increase in over a decade!

Retaliation claims are also up again — an increase from 753 to 776. Though, it should be noted, that rise is a bit slower than the past few years.

What’s the takeaway?

As I noted last year, you may be looking for claims in the wrong spot.  Dismissal claims are up modestly but “harassment” and “terms and conditions” claims continue to see the biggest increases.

Thus, managing your current employees and getting legal counsel involved to help advise you, may be more helpful to keeping such claims to a minimum than just talking with counsel exclusively about terminations.

Regardless, employers should continue to be mindful that the trend of increased discrimination claims in Connecticut shows no signs of slowing down.

 

numbersAt this week’s CHRO information session, I was able to review the new statistics released by the CHRO this fall regarding case filings and dismissals.

They’ve now been posted live on the CHRO’s website here.

It’s something I’ve covered each year and I’m always fascinated by what these statistics show — and don’t show.

What’s the big takeaway this year?

The trend of increasing numbers of discrimination complaints being filed that we have seen in Connecticut since 2012 (when just 1838 complaints were filed) is showing no signs of abating.

Indeed, in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2016, 2616 complaints were filed, up from 2482 the year before.  Thus from FY 2012 to FY 2016, that’s a huge 42 percent increase in the number of claims filed.

Now, not all complaints with the CHRO are employment-related.

But as with prior years, that number has been going up as well.

For FY 2016, there were 2160 such complaints filed, up from 2017 last year, and up from 1559 four years ago.  Again, that’s a 39 percent increase in employment-related claims filed over the last four years!

I’ve noted this in prior years but these increases are head-scratchers.  Normally, in an improving economy, claims go down.  While the Connecticut economy hasn’t been growing a lot, it is still somewhat stable.  

Moreover, such increases are counter to the national trends which have seen the numbers of claims filed with the EEOC decrease from their peaks in 2010, 2011 and 2012.    (Though I should note that in FY 2015, the EEOC did see a slight increase — but the numbers are still down 10 percent from their peaks early this decade.)

I speculated at this week’s informational session that it could be that more claims are being filed because it’s easier than ever to pass the Case Assessment Review stage and try to get something at a mediation.  Those at the CHRO challenged that argument but no one at the meeting had a good idea of what could be causing the rise.

Regardless, employers who have been sensing that more complaints than ever are being filed aren’t far off the mark.

I’ll take a deeper dive into the statistics in tomorrow’s post.

Rainbow over Hartford
Are Things Getting Better or Worse?

The last few weeks it seems that I’ve been reading about sexual harassment in the workplace issues a lot more. Here are a few examples:

So what’s going on? Is sex harassment increasing? Or is this just another round of increased focused placed on a problem that still persists?

Well, if you look at the statistics, you can see part of the story — and part of the problem trying to glean trends from the numbers too.

Last year, I reported on some statistics from the state level about harassment claims.  Indeed, sex harassment cases were down significantly, but general “I’ve been harassed” claims were up nearly 200% over the last decade or so.

The EEOC statistics show slightly different numbers. Sex harassment claims went up by a modest 4 percent in fiscal year 2015, though more generalized “harassment” under Title VII claims also increased by 6 percent.

So, which is it? Up or down? Statistics on case filing don’t tell the full story.  Surveys (yes, including the one in Cosmopolitan magazine) show that women still think some workplaces have issues.

But I would argue that chasing statistics is missing the point. Rather, it’s the perception of whether this is a hot issue that will drive the discussion.  And to that, we’re definitely seeing renewed interest. For example, a few weeks ago, the EEOC issued some findings and statements from a select task force calling on stakeholders “to double down and ‘reboot’ workplace harassment prevention efforts“.  This increased focus on the area will once again bring the issues of sexual harassment to the forefront.

What’s an employer to do? Well, start with the obvious.  Review your existing policies. Are they strong enough? Do they need to be updated to reflect current practices?  And then review your existing training.  Is it updated? Or is it still stuck in the 1990s?   And then look at how your workplace is actually functioning.

Beyond that the EEOC has a whole list of suggestions for employers to follow. You can view the entire compilation, but here are a few examples:

  • Employers should foster an organizational culture in which harassment is not tolerated, and in which respect and civility are promoted. Employers should communicate and model a consistent commitment to that goal.
  • Employers should assess their workplaces for the risk factors associated with harassment and explore ideas for minimizing those risks.
  • Employers should conduct climate surveys to assess the extent to which harassment is a problem in their organization.
  • Employers should devote sufficient resources to harassment prevention efforts, both to ensure that such efforts are effective, and to reinforce the credibility of leadership’s commitment to creating a workplace free of harassment.
  • Employers should ensure that where harassment is found to have occurred, discipline is prompt and proportionate to the severity of the infraction. In addition, employers should ensure that where harassment is found to have occurred, discipline is consistent, and does not give (or create the appearance of) undue favor to any particular employee.
  • Employers should hold mid-level managers and front-line supervisors accountable for preventing and/or responding to workplace harassment, including through the use of metrics and performance reviews.
  • If employers have a diversity and inclusion strategy and budget, harassment prevention should be an integral part of that strategy.

HR personnel have a lot on their plate now; be sure harassment prevention remains there as well.

Two women strikers from Ladies Tailors union on picket line during the garment workers strike, 1910, New York City - Library of Congress
Two women strikers from Ladies Tailors union on picket line during the garment workers strike, 1910, New York City – Library of Congress

The death of unions has been predicted time and again.

Each time a new round of statistics come out, we (me included) try to make some sense of it.

Just check out some of my posts from the last several years.

So, a few weeks back, a new round of statistics was released.

And once again, the latest numbers show big gains for unions in the state.  In 2013, union representation stood at just 220,000 people (or 14.3 percent of the workforce).  By 2015, that number jumped to 277,000 (or 17.4 percent of the workforce).

That represents an increase of nearly 25 percent over the last two years.

Last year, the agency cautioned that the change may not be as large as it appears because “Connecticut has a small sample size in the survey” (according to a Hartford Courant report).

Indeed, Connecticut private businesses expanded employment across all sectors in 2015 by adding 22,600 jobs.  So, the statistics make it seem that nearly all of that gain (and the loss of 400 jobs from the public sector) went to unions.

Something doesn’t add up.

Nevertheless, I think it’s fair to conclude that the unions in the state are more than holding their own in Connecticut.

Nationally, union membership rate stands at 11.1 percent — unchanged from 2014, but down from 20.1 percent since 1983.

 

 

 

franklinSo, in my prior two posts about the new case statistical reports from the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities, I’ve looked at the case statistics to see that harassment and terms & conditions claims are up, and that ancestry, race & color claims filed are also up.

But what else can we glean from these numbers?

First, according to the reports, there are a lot more cases pending at the agency than in the last couple of years resulting in a big backlog of cases.  Specifically, there are 2670 active and pending cases at the agency by the end of the fiscal year. Contrast that with just 757 in 2014, and 209 in 2013.

That means that employers are likely to have many more of these cases floating around and they are moving at the proverbial snail’s pace.  Clearly, if these numbers are right, something isn’t working at the agency.

Second, there has been a (very modest) increase the number of referee decisions at the CHRO — ostensibly being that more cases are being tried through a public hearing.  But before you draw many conclusions, the numbers are still paltry.  In 2015, just 16 cases had a referee decision. That’s up from six in 2014 and three in 2013.

Nonetheless, the calendar schedule for contested hearings looks busy for the rest of the year so it remains to be seen whether this process will continue at the same levels.

Finally, for those that think that every case is a battle that is won or lost, think again. The plurality of cases at the agency alone are still closed through settlement. In 2015, 968 out of 2334 case closures came through a withdrawal with settlement.  And that doesn’t account for the 543 cases that are “released” from jurisdiction so that employees may file in court directly (and whether those cases are settled too).

In short, for employers, the process at the CHRO is slow and you’re still likely to end up trying to settle the case more often than not.

Statistics don’t tell us everything; but to ignore the numbers here is a mistake. Employers do best when they understand and adapt to today’s trends and not simply go by how things were 10 to 15 years ago.

Because the change has been substantial.

chro2In yesterday’s post, I talked about how employment claims being filed are up big at the CHRO.

Indeed, in looking at the statistics further, I realized that it is the second highest number of claims being filed in the last 15 years.

So, FY 2015 was a very big year for claims.

But typically, in an improving economy, claims go down.  At least that’s the prevailing wisdom. So, what gives?

I wondered if the statistics could help explain the increase further?

In part, yes.

abacusIf you look at the “discharge” claims — that is, the claim that “I was fired because of discrimination” — those claims are basically the same (1174 for FY 2015 vs. 1164 in 2014.)

Compared with 2003 – the peak year for employment claims at 2211 — discharge claims are actually down substantially.  Indeed, in 2003, there were 1385 claims.  Thus, discharge claims are actually down 15 percent since 2003.

So, where are these claims coming from? One is from an obvious source: Retaliation claims.

In 2003, there were 516 claims filed. In 2014, 625. And in 2015, 753.  A 46 percent increase in the last decade or so and 20 percent over the last year alone.

Another is from a not so obvious source: from the “terms and conditions” area.  That is, employees who claim that they are being discriminated against in the “terms and conditions” of their employment when it comes to such things as hiring, firing, promotions, and pay. It also means an employer may not discriminate, for example, when granting breaks, approving leave, assigning work stations, or setting any other term or condition of employment – however small.

In 2003, there were 411 such claims filed. In 2014, 782. And in FY2015 —  a spike to 941.  That translates to a 130 percent increase in such claims over the last 12 years and 20 percent over the last year alone.

In my mind, that means that many current employees are bringing discrimination claims against their employers based on the terms and conditions of their employment.

One other source? Harassment claims.  Notably, I’m not talking about sexual harassment claims which are actually down from last year and down 24 percent from 2003.

Instead, this is the catch all claim for “I’m harassed” because of some other reason.  503 claims were filed in FY 2015 vs. 380 in 2014 and just 175 in 2003.  That’s an increase of nearly 190 percent in the last 12 years and 32 percent last year alone!

Again, these are typically brought by current employees who may be dissatistifed with things at work and believe that they are being “harassed” by their supervisor.

Indeed, the notion of “workplace bullying” movement is premised, at least in part, on this idea.

So, what’s the takeaway here? You may be looking for claims in the wrong spot. Dismissal claims are fairly constant, but it is claims by current employees that are up substantially over past years.

And while we’ve talked about the increase in retaliation claims for many years, but harassment and “terms & conditions” claims are now the hot areas — at least in Connecticut.

Is there anything else to be gleaned from the statistics? Any other reasons why we’re seeing an increase? Stay tuned for the next post.

Numbers everywhere
Numbers everywhere

As I noted on Friday, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights & Opportunities has, at long last, released case statistics for 2014-2015 fiscal year and has updated their statistics for the last several years.

As a result, there are lots of new numbers to pore over and information to be gleaned.

The biggest takeaway? The number of discrimination complaints filed with the agency is up — and up big over the last few years.

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015, 2482 complaints were filed state-wide, up from 2172 the year before and up from a low of 1838 just three years ago.

For those playing at home, that translates to a whopping 35% increase in discrimination complaints from FY2012 to FY2015.

Now, not all complaints filed with the CHRO are employment-related. But even those employment discrimination complaints are also up big.  In FY2015, 2017 employment complaints were filed, up from 1817 the year prior and up from 1559 three years ago.

Thus, employment complaints are up 29 percent in the past three years, and up 11 percent in the last year alone.

Given the improving economy and the corresponding drop in claims at the federal level, these state statistics are pretty surprising.

Diving deeper in the numbers, raises more eyebrows.  Where is this increase coming from?

  • Age claims? 503 in 2014 vs. 505 in 2015. Nope.
  • Sexual orientation claims? 62 in 2014 vs. 51 in 2015. A decrease.
  • Sex claims? 544 in 2014 vs. 575 in 2015. A modest increase.
  • Physical disability? 450 in 2014 vs. 484 in 2015. Again a modest increase.

But a few areas stand out:

  • Ancestry? 133 in 2014 vs. 189 in 2015. A huge increase of 42 percent!
  • Color? 409 in 2014 vs. 480 in 2015. Another big increase of over 17 percent.
  • Race? 538 in 2014 vs. 596 in 2015.  An increase of 11 percent, consistent with the overall trend.
  • National origin? 218 in 2014 vs. 258 in 2015.  A corresponding increase of over 18 percent.

Thus, while the statistics can only tell part of the story, it is apparent that claims for race, color, ancestry and national origin all account for a substantial part of the increase.

What does this mean for employers? What else can we glean from the statistics? Why are complaints going up in a relatively good economy?

I’ll tackle these questions and more in upcoming posts.